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Palenque Goes International: Stephens & Catherwood

Catherwood Drawing of Palenque

Catherwood Drawing of Palenque

 

Excerpts from The Visionary Mayan Queen: Yohl Ik’nal of Palenque

 

Incidents of Travel Vol-1_

The Travel Writers of Their Time

Thanks to the remarkable four-volume books Incidents of Travel, by John L. Stephens and Frederick Catherwood, we are given much insight into the hardships of travel and the impact of this splendid and high civilization on these explorers.

 

John Lloyd Stephens

John Lloyd Stephens

John Lloyd Stephens is a masterful storyteller and Frederick Catherwood a fine artist.  Their first two-volume book, featuring Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan, was published in 1841.  It became an instant success, with publisher Harper and Brothers in New York making 11

Frederick Catherwood

Frederick Catherwood

printings of 20,000 copies each in only three months.  I keep a copy with me to enjoy comparing their impressions with present-day Palenque.  Although his prose is typical for that period, it’s richly descriptive and amusing.  Stephens weaves details of their harrowing adventures, gives astute character profiles, evocative descriptions and levelheaded reasoning, spiced with wry humor.  Catherwood provides distinctive drawings and quality architectural designs with floor plans, elevations and outside views of Palenque’s major structures.  Thirty-one of his Palenque drawings were converted to engravings and published in the two Central American volumes.

You get a real sense of travel in the mid-1800s in the back-country of Mexico and Central America. 

Stephens and Catherwood came from Guatemala to Ocosingo and followed the same route Dupaix took thirty years earlier, an ancient Indian path over mountains giving “one of the grandest, wildest, and most sublime scenes I ever beheld.” They made the trip in five days to reduce nights in the wild during the rainy season.  Clambering along steep paths hovering over thousand-foot precipices, they mostly walked leading mules and occasionally risked being carried in a chair by an Indian using a tumpline across his forehead.  The chair-bearer’s heavy breathing,

Trek over mountains Catherwood carried in "silla" by Maya bearer

Trek over mountains
Catherwood carried in “silla” by Maya bearer

dripping sweat and trembling limbs failed to inspire confidence and made them feel guilty, so they used the chair very little.  The descent was even more terrible than the ascent, and the sun was sinking.  Dark clouds and thunder gave way to a violent rainstorm, men and mules slipping and sliding.  Stephens admits “. . . it was the worst mountain I ever encountered in that or any other country, and, under our apprehension of the storm, I will venture to say that no travelers ever descended in less time.”

Once on the plains below and camped for the night, they suffered an onslaught of “moschetoes as we had not before experienced.”  Even fire and cigars could not keep the vicious insects at bay.  After a sleepless and much-bitten night, Stephens went before daylight to the nearby shallow river “and stretched myself out on the gravelly bottom, where the water was barely deep enough to run over my body.  It was the first comfortable moment I had had.”

“Moschetoes” and rainstorms continued to plague the explorers after they arrived at the ruins of Palenque.  They no sooner got their wood frame beds and stone slab dining table set up, with a meal of chicken, beans, rice and cold tortillas prepared proudly by their mozo Juan, than a loud thunderclap

Catherwood Drawing Palenque Palace Interior

Catherwood Drawing
Palenque Palace Interior

heralded the afternoon storm.  Though located on the upper terrace of the palace and covered by a roof, the fierce wind blasted through open doors followed instantly by a deluge that soaked everything.  They moved to an inside corridor but still could not escape the rain, and slept with clothes and bedding thoroughly wet.

Rather, they tried to sleep but “suffered terribly from moschetoes, the noise and stings of which drove away sleep. In the middle of the night I took up my mat to escape from these murderers of rest.”  Finding a low damp passage near the foot of the palace tower, Stephens crawled inside and spread his mat as bats whizzed through the passage.  However, the bats drove away the mosquitoes, the damp passage was cooling and refreshing, and “with some twinging apprehensions of the snakes and reptiles, lizards and scorpions, which infest the ruins, I fell asleep.”

They solved the mosquito problem by bending sticks over their wood beds and sewing their sheets together, draping them over the sticks to form a mosquito net.  Not all insects were odious.  At night the darkness of the palace was lighted by huge fireflies of “extraordinary size and brilliance” that flew through corridors or clung to walls.  Called locuyos, they were half an inch long and had luminescent spots by their eyes and under their wings.  “Four of them together threw a brilliant light for several yards around” and one alone gave enough light to read a newspaper.

Exploring the Ruins

To explore the heavily forested ruins they hired a guide, the same man employed by Waldeck, Walker and Caddy.  It’s hard now to imagine how dense the jungle was then, trees growing on top of every structure and filling plazas.  Without the guide, they had no idea where other structures lay and “might have gone within a hundred feet of all the buildings without discovering one of them.”  The palace was most visible and could be seen from the northeast path leading to the ruins.  Stephens described its many rooms, stuccos, tablets, and ornaments while Catherwood rendered detailed floor plans and copied images.  Stephens hoped their work would give an idea of the “profusion of its ornaments, of their unique and striking character, and of their mournful effect, shrouded by trees.”  Perhaps readers could imagine the palace as it once was “perfect in its amplitude and rich decorations, and occupied by the strange people whose portraits and figures now adorn its walls.”

Catherwood Sketch of Palace

Catherwood Sketch of Palace

Catherwood Drawing Principle Court of Palace

Catherwood Drawing
Principle Court of Palace

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to the guide, there were five other buildings that Stephens numbered, but none could be seen from the palace.  The closest was Casa 1, a ruined pyramid that apparently had steps on all sides, now thrown down by trees that required them to “clamber over stones, aiding the feet by clinging to the branches.”  From descriptions and drawings, this structure is the Pyramid of the Inscriptions Bas-relief stuccos on the four piers of the upper temple were reasonably well preserved, depicting four standing figures holding infants.  The famous hieroglyphic tablets covering the interior wall were also in good condition.

Catherwood Sketch and Architectural Floor Plan Temple of Inscriptions

Catherwood Sketch and Architectural Floor Plan
Temple of Inscriptions

Casas 2, 3 and 5 are part of the Cross Group.  Stephens and Catherwood were deeply impressed by the stuccos and tablets that we now know belong to the Temple of the Cross and Temple of the Foliated Cross.  The fantastic tablets from the first temple were incomplete and only the left tablet containing glyphs was in place.  The middle tablet with two figures facing a cross had been removed and carried down the side of the pyramid, but deposited near the stream bank below.  A villager intended to take it home, but was stopped by government orders forbidding further removal from the ruins.  The right tablet was broken and fragmented, but from remnants they saw it contained more glyphs.

The second temple contained another tablet in near-perfect condition.  It had a central panel with two figures facing a large mask over two crossed batons, flanked on each side by panels of glyphs.  The four piers of the temple’s entrance once contained sculptures; the outer two adorned with large medallions were still in place.  The other two panels had been removed by villagers and set into the wall of a house.  Copied earlier by Catherwood, these panels depicted two men facing each other.  One was richly dressed and regal, the other an old man in jaguar pelt smoking a pipe.  Later these famous sculptures were moved to the village church, and again later to the Palenque museum.

Temple of Foliated Cross L. Schele drawing, FAMSI

Temple of Foliated Cross
L. Schele drawing, FAMSI

Smoking Lord, Temple of the Cross L. Schele drawing, FAMSI

Smoking Lord, Temple of the Cross – L. Schele drawing, FAMSI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Casa 4 was farthest away, southwest of the palace.  It sat on a pyramid 100 feet above the bank of the river with the front wall entirely collapsed.  The large stucco tablet inside showed the bottom half of a figure sitting on a double-headed jaguar throne, the lovely Beau Relief partially destroyed by Waldeck.  Stephens regretted this loss greatly (as do I) because it appeared to be “superior in execution to any other stucco relief in Palenque.”  This small structure is now called Temple of the Jaguar.

The Beau Relief drawn by Jean-Frederic Waldeck

The Beau Relief

 

This story is told in my post:

The Palenque Beau Relief: A Maya Beauty Vanishes.

 

 

 

Difficult Working Conditions

Temple of the Inscriptions in 1985 Maudslay photo from Meosweb

Temple of the Inscriptions in 1895
Maudslay photo from Meosweb

Stephens complains that artists of former expeditions failed to reproduce the detailed glyphs in Casas 1 and 3, and omitted drawings of Casa 2 altogether.  He believes these artists were “incapable of the labour, and the steady, determined perseverance required for drawing such complicated, unintelligible, and anomalous characters.”  Catherwood used a camera lucida to project a light image of the glyphs and sculptures onto paper, and then drew the images to accurate scale and detail.  He divided his paper into squares for copying glyphs to give accurate placement, reducing these large images and hand correcting the later engravings himself.

One must admire these two men, working under terrible conditions with limited equipment, yet providing such a thorough account of the Palenque structures they saw.  They needed to scrape off green moss, dig out roots, clean away layers of dissolved limestone, use candles to light dark inner chambers, build scaffolds to access high places, and endure a plethora of climate and insect assaults.  They paid the price of multiple mosquito bites, for both men contracted malaria and suffered repeated episodes of illness.

They left us a few astute conclusions.  Stephens proved more insightful than later Mayanists by writing, “The hieroglyphics doubtless tell its history” and “The hieroglyphics are the same as were found at Copan and Quirigua . . . there is room for belief that the whole of this country was once occupied by the same race, speaking the same language . . .”

Itzamna Painted on Vase Performing Ritual

Itzamna Painted on Vase Performing Ritual

“Here were the remains of a cultivated, polished, and peculiar people, who had passed through all the stages incident to the rise and fall of nations; reached their golden age, and perished, entirely unknown . . . wherever we moved we saw the evidences of their taste, their skill in arts, their wealth and power.”  John Lloyd Stephens

 

 

 

 

Excerpts from The Visionary Mayan Queen: Yohl Ik’nal of Palenque

These excerpts from the Archeological Field Journal of Francesca Nokom Gutierrez, a fictional archeologist in my books, describe the history of archeological exploration at Palenque. I’ll be doing several posts taken from her journal in the first 3 books in my “Mists of Palenque” series.

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Rabbit scribe

 

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6 Comments

  1. Sean P Carlin says:

    I so admire, Leonide, your commitment to research. I’m a fanatical researcher myself! My next book is set during the New York campaign of the Revolutionary War, and I’ve been astounded by the sheer amount of historical materials available, from published Hessian journals to battlefield atlases describing geographical features and weather conditions at the battle sites! I wrote an undersea thriller once (a screenplay assignment), and learned all about the particular living conditions aboard underwater habitats through researching and speaking to authorities in the field. And my current WIP required me to become an armchair expert on police procedure and street-gang culture. Boy, I wish I’d been so studious back in school!

    • Thanks so much, Sean! Doing depth research is part of the fun and fascination of writing historical fiction. We must have passion for our topics to sustain the intense study. I can imagine how much material is available about the Revolutionary War, and digesting all this for purposes of your story is undoubtedly a huge effort. BTW, I really enjoyed your post about deconstructing novels by “Save the Cat” and why the Aristotelian model of the Hero’s Journey doesn’t work for books such as “Game of Thrones.” You’ve got me interested in learning about “postnarrativity” as a writing form (not that I want to do it), thanks for the resource in Rushkoff’s “Present Shock.” It’s a pleasure to connect with you.

      • Sean P Carlin says:

        I’ve come to really enjoy the research phase of writing. One of the true joys of what we do is getting to learn about other cultures and other professions in order to bring more verisimilitude to our own writing.

        And thanks again for the kind words about my Game of Thrones piece! Present Shock is absolutely worth reading — I found it to be eye-opening — and covers so much more than the collapse of narrative; that’s merely the first of five ways, per Rushkoff, in which we are struggling to adjust to our new “presentist” culture. I don’t write postnarratively myself — my work (to date) is in the Joseph Campbell mode — but recognizing postnarrativity (and understanding why it’s resonating) is absolutely crucial for storytellers of any kind in our new millennium.

        Pleasure to connect with you, Leonide!

      • I do plan to read Rushkoff’s book Present Shock. I’ve noticed that more writers are using first person present tense, even when writing historical fiction. I understand that mode gives immediacy, and many believe it makes the narrative more urgent and powerful. To me, it feels discordant with a historical perspective. I recently read a book set in ancient Inca times, written first person present tense, that read more like a memoir than historical fiction. Very little dialogue, and what there was is set strangely in brackets rather than quotes. I didn’t relate well to this style. I do want to know why postnarrativity resonates with the millennials. Thanks for introducing me to this concept.

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